Andrology is one of the most sciences which important to management of reproduction in animals, and studying the diseases which can reduce fertility in animal or make it sterile; which leads to huge losses on the economic limit but, after a lot of researches and reconsidering, I think orchitis is the most important disease, dangerous leading to infertility & may be sterility that make us ask; what is the meaning of orchitis , What are the causes of its occurrence, how can I prevent it What is the danger to the animal if it is left without treatment? A lot of questions we answer in the next pages by using clinical methods.
Before the beginning, I would like to point out that the disease differs from its susceptibility to infection from one animal to another, or rather a common infection, and this differs from one animal to another, with its different types as will be discussed later.
And at the end of this research the student should be able to:-
- What is the meaning of orchitis
- Diagnosing all cases of orchitis
- Knowing the causes of orchitis & differentiate between them
- Methods for treating orchitis
- Methods of preventing orchitis and early diagnosis
Orchitis means acute or chronic inflamition in teastes appears as swelling in one or both of them characterized by painful enlargment involves non-specific inflammatory changes but generally testicular degenration.
It caused by some of reason as
- Truma ,
- Teasticular torsion ( Figure1.2) : weps of spermatic cord around it self
Scrotal hernia: the visceral content come down to settle in side the scrotum cavitation
- Infection by bacterial: it is a lot of bacterial agent cause orchitis and that according to specise and individual
- Viral e.g:( MUMBS infection)
- Fungl agent (rarley)
- Autoimmune disease
- Bacterial infection by brucella abortus is one of the common
cases of orchitis & also tuberculosis , rather than that it is sporadic
disease & rare in domestic animals as :-
Actinomyces pyogenes, Hemophlus spp, Chlamydia
Nacardia, Brucella abortus, Steptococcus spp.
Salmonella abortus, CorynebacteriumPseudotuberculosis(a)
N.B: Unilateral orchitis is more common than bilateral Ochitisin in bull
While orchitis is uncommon in case of stallion , it is called Camelus dromedarius in camel.
There is some symptoms similar to symptoms of other diseases as tumar of testes or hydrocella but, There is other symptoms when it come with each other the case is suspect to be orchitis by high level as the following symptoms
- Animal feel sever pain of the testes
- Visible solling of one or both testes
- Haemeturia:bloody urine as aresult to ascending infection
Infection–>testes–>epididmis–>ductus deferens–>prostat àurethra–>blood urine
- May be swelling or enlargment of lymph node of the certain area(inguinal lymph node)
- Haematospermia:presence of blood in ejaculation of semen as happen before in haematuria
- Presence of wound or other lesions in the scrotal skin may be found
Effects & reactions of the body:-
Necrosis of the testicular tissue occure as a result of in elastisity of tunical albiginea.
Thrombosis & coagulation of blood vessels in latent case & increase of tempurature by producing heat lead to testicular degeneration.
The effected testes rapidly loses its activity of normal function of producing sperm and loss of hormonal equlibruim.
- First by inspection of the scrotum one testicle is longer than other one
- Palpation, we feel enlargment of one or both of testes & swelling & scrotal content are painful & hot & edematous
- Urine analysis & blood test:
coitus disease(a) as brucellosis,
- Specificly brucellosis & TB (table 1.1)
- Present of blood in urine(haematourea)
- Present of blood in ejaculation (Haematospermia)
By Isolation of pathogen from blood or semen has the ability to make inflammation on testes
Ultrasonography:we can use ultrasound in the Diagnosis of the inflammation of the testes. Itis appear as hypoechoic ill-defind area involving lower polar region with increased vascularity.
We should know that the Treatment of orchitis May be it not sufficient to return the testes to post normal function
- sexual rest:bull must be take rest time to be ready for Treatment
- inj. of systematic antibiotic & novalgin or prednisolone inj. 1mg/kg
- Local application of cold dauches astringent iodine plint to reduce pain
- Surgical solution: unilateral castration to protect other sound testes so, fertility reduce 50%(one is better than nothing)
II- Chronic orchitis:-
- It is the same Treatment of acute one but following by two week
- General health disturbances disappeared
- Affected testes became loss painful either atrophied or enlarged with abscess formation & scrotal asymmetry
- Adhered to surrounding scrotum & felt firmer in consistency
- Affected testes loss their function & Affected with fibrosis
- Remove the Affected testes & discard animal from breeding if the other testes degenerated
- Treatment in dog (auto immune orchitis)
- Some research take about give Affected dogs immune suppressor to decrease antigen antibodies reaction. between. Sperm & it’s specific antibodies. But practically it has no effect & doesn’t make any change so, it doesn’t make any sense to use it.
Prevention & management:
- a) For bovine farm:
- Make rose bagel test periodically.
- Culled any bull has hereditary ability to orchitis.
- Take care of animal skin cleanliness.
- Affected bull must be culled.
- Affected bull should take sexual rest.
- b) For dogs and pets:-
- Keep your dog away from any fights to avoid injury to the testicles.
- If your dog cannot mate, he will be at risk of testicular inflammation and tumors.
- Before mating, make sure that all checks are done on the female so that she does not transmit any coitus diseases leading to orchitis.
- Clean the kennel thoroughly and make sure it does not contain sharp materials.